• Ergonomics

    Ergonomic Design

    In the fourth stage of the ergonomic design the “division of labor between segments of the organism” is designed. On the basis of anthropometric and physiological and also information- and cognitionpsychological realizations, activity elements and working equipment are improved for the functions of energy and power generation and the functions of the information absorption, processing, and delivery. The model of user–computer interface, which is described in the following exemplifies the stage of ergonomic design. This model is based on the language model, which derives from Foley and van Dam (1982). The model supports the process of designing the user–computer interface and consists of four steps. 1. In the first step…

  • Ergonomics

    Process of Work System Design

    The implementation of ergonomic insights in concrete solutions of work system design is carried out in different operational functions. The individual divisions approach their task of work system design with different areas of interest. Regarding the systematization of such design interests developed a conception from a personal view. He differentiates interests of preservation, interests of design, and interests of utilization of human work. In reference to the interest of preservation of the human work ability the occupational safety was developed, which in turn endues own systematic procedures, for example, the TOP model. Work technology is referred to, regarding the general interest of the function of work systems. The work technology…

  • Ergonomics

    Working Equipment and Operating Resources

    A meaningful classification of technical systems, which are also called working equipment and operating resources can be considered in accordance on the basis of the system function and the system output. The categories “transformation,” “transport,” and “storage” can be differentiated regarding the system function. Transformation means that the outputs of a system are quantitatively and/or qualitatively different from the system inputs. Transport signifies that only the spatial and temporal coordinates between inputs and outputs change while the material, energetic, and informational attributes remain constant in quality and quantity. The function class “storage” is concerned; if only the temporal coordinates of the output differ from those of the input while all…

  • Work Environment

    Goals of Work System Design and the Idea of Man in Ergonomics

    Basic goal of work system design is the optimization of the entire work system. In the sense of the main objective of ergonomics work systems are to be suitably arranged for both human and economical purposes. Thereby, economy is determined by the best possible proportion of inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) to outputs (e.g., finished products, service). Human abilities and technical conditions are to be adjusted, in order to arrange work systems to be suitable for humans. Ergonomics is based on the assumption that rationalization and humanization goals work complementary to each other. On the one hand, humane conditions of work lead to effectiveness (in the sense of result reaching)…

  • Ergonomics

    Working Person (several dimensions of human work capacity)

    Referring to the working person, several dimensions of human work capacity can be distinguished theoretically, even if it is difficult to account for the differentiation in dimensions in a metrological way concerning the concrete application. These dimensions are called, on the one hand, ability and, on the other hand, willingness to perform. In regards to ability the characteristics, which cause the achievement structure of a working person are considered physiologically as achievement capacity of the organs and/or organ systems and psychologically as achievement potential of psychological functions and/or appropriate components. Willingness to performis determined physiologically by the excitation level of organs and/or organ systems in the psychological sense by achievement…

  • Food Nutritions,  Strenght and stamina booster,  Uncategorized

    Strenght and Stamina Booster

    The connection between nutrition and stamina is straightforward: food is fuel. along with oxygen it is our primary source of energy. just as we will become fatigued and perform at a lower level when deprived of enough oxygen our energy will drop off when given inadequate nourishment. that is why in this chapter we are going to focus on how the choices we make regarding what we eat and drink can either support—or undermine—our objectives in key areas of stamina: keeping our energy level high without drop-offs strengthening our immune system and increasing longevity maximizing the fitness gains from our workouts helping our bodies recover from stress and experience deep…

  • Body Fitness,  case study : body fitness,  Dance,  Ergonomics,  Flexibility Postures,  Hard Skill,  Uncategorized

    Interaction of posture, forces and time

     “The safety of the body is ensured by considering its weakest link.”     It is important to remember that the interaction between posture, force and time may sometimes increase or decrease the total risk (increased probability and severity of injuries) considerably. It is for instance not necessarily true that lifting heavy weights is always a risk; this is acceptable as long as it is done infrequently (to ensure recovery) and with good posture.  In contrast, small, persistent loadings over a long time period can be much more harmful than they seem, because weak structures that are constantly nearing fatigue can “drag along” neighbouring body structures into compensating with muscular tension.…

  • Body Fitness,  Pshyical Health,  Uncategorized,  Work Environment,  Workplace

    Physical Loading

    Based on the knowledge you have acquired in (Basic Anatomy and Physiology), you now have an understanding of how the body’s locomotive. Structures allow movement and the handling of loads. In this chapter, we turn that anatomical and physiological knowledge into mechanical principles of loading, allowing you to identify, analyse and evaluate the greatest risks for physical injury in the workplace. One of the great strengths of engineering is the ability to make simplifications in order to calculate how much loading the body is under. If you have limit values available, biomechanical calculations can tell you whether a chosen task, in terms of posture, forces and time, will push the…

  • technology,  Uncategorized,  Work Environment,  Workplace

    WHY DO I NEED TO KNOW THIS AS AN ENGINEER?

      From a physical point of view, having a basic understanding of the human body’s strengths, abilities, and limitations is an important basis for making well thought-out tweaks to the design of the workplace, in order to build work systems that are not a risk to huma health or performance. Knowing how your muscles, bones and joints work may seem like a far cry from your engineering work, but it will significantly help your understanding in later  chapters where physical loading and methods of ergonomics evaluation are  discussed. Another thing this chapter does, is to provide a limited description of anatomy and  physiology; it will not go into as much…

  • technology,  Uncategorized,  Work Environment,  Workplace

    Different engineering roles act on different types of knowledge

    Engineers may end up playing a variety of different (sometimes overlapping) roles in their professional career. Each with their distinct scope, system level and operational concerns – some switch between several of these throughout their working life, depending on how specialized their working role is and at what system level they are. Expected to address problem solving. For example, an engineer may act on a specialized, operative level with responsibility for a single  production line, which would require specific methods and  knowledge to optimize for human well-being and performance.  Other engineers end up at a management level, where they are  perhaps not served by  anatomical knowledge  and ergonomics evaluation methods,…