How big is the problem?

              MSDs are the work-related health problem with the highest impact on sickness absenteeism in Europe; they are the cause of half of all absences from work and cost the EU €240 billion each year in productivity losses (Fit for Work Europe 2013). MSDs are also the work-related health problem with the highest impact on permanent incapacity; 61% of permanent incapacity is due to MSDs (OSHA 2007). Forty-four million workers across the EU have an MSD caused by their work, 30% of those with MSDs also have depression, making it even more difficult for Read more

What is ergonomics/human factors?

                  For many people, the word ergonomic is associated primarily with comfy office chairs, the correct labeled “ergonomic”, like kitchenware, backpacks or gardening tools. The word itself comes from the Greek roots ergon (work)and nomos (laws)androughlytranslatesto“th scienceofwork”,focusingonhumanactivity. The purpose of production ergonomics               It can be assumed that anyone in charge of a production system would want all of its sub-components to function together with as much ease and efficiency as possible. When part of that production system is human, the performance of the system as Read more

Basic Anatomy and Physiology

             Our ability to work – in any way – is completely dependent on our physical health. When we feel unease, discomfort, pain or numbness, we may be able to ignore the body’s warning signals and still perform work, but the body will perform slower; with less power, quality and precision; with more errors; and at worst, resulting in serious accidents. A very real problem that is faced by all productio industry is when the limit has been passed for what a human body can tolerate, resulting in a worke needing to go on sick Read more


                  When the different functional tissues of the locomotive system work together, the body generates movement. The study of human movement is known as kinesiology. There is some useful standard terminology that is used in medical science to describe different types of movement, in terms of directions and orientation. Most human movements consist of bending or twisting motions that change the joint angles between different body segments. Some movements are coupled, in the sense that pairs of muscles work against each other to “do and undo” each other’s respective movements (for example, bending Read more


                Why do i need to know this as an engineer sometimes a bit of history goes a long way to explain why certain things in a discipline are considered important. For an engineer it may be good to know what the starting point was before any real thought was put into methodically improving the human aspects of production work. It will also help you understand why ergonomics covers so many areas and is such a diverse and complex discipline. The discipline of ergonomics is not nearly as old as medicine or even Read more


                 What is music its ? what comes out of the speakers when we play a cd on our stereo. Its what we hear on the radio. Music is singers singing and musicians playing. music is a sound that we enjoy hearing. iIs this a proper answer to the question what is music if i asked what is a car you could answer by pointing at a large object moving up the street and saying its one of those. But this may not be a satisfactory answer. A full explanation of what a car is would mention petrol internal combustion engines Read more


          What do we see when we see dance what do we feel when we dance who are we when we are part of an enactment of dance the phenomenon of dance brings to the fore key ideas about the nature of human meaning-making the role of our fundamentally corporeal actions in the world and the foundational aspects of our experiences. Dance i contend holds immense promise as an object for study as well as a subject of study that is a source of insight in itself shedding light on life movement and meaning. In investigating Read more


What entertains a given individual is inescapably subjective, a matter of. One might paraphrase Berelson: some kinds of communication, under some kinds of conditions, will entertain some kinds of people .  Some scholars contend that empathy can signal the presence of entertainment. Bosshart and Macconi suggest that entertainment requires one “to identify himself or herself with fictional persons and actions”. Similarly, Oliver explores tragedy and other somber forms of entertainment, and concludes that enjoyment of them correlates with what she terms “tender affective states,” which are “associated with feelings of sympathy, warmth, kindness, and understanding” . Zillmann proposes an Affective Read more


          A number of factors have contributed to employer provision of non-mandatory benefits such as health insurance and pension plans. These include self interest of the decision makers union bargaining tax advantages provided to companies by the federalgovernment for offering certain bene ts the need to be competitive and retain employees and union avoidance. The logic underlying employer strategies to voluntarily provide benefits suggests that benefit to offering share associated with employee benefit satisfaction which in turn is associated with attitudes and behaviors that serve the employers interests harris fink 1994 the implied process based on social exchange Read more


The opportunity for an MBO/MBI may arise in a number of ways. A group may decide to sell a business because it has become non-core. A company may find itself in difficulties and need to sell all or part of the business. The owner of a private company wishes to retire. A receiver or administrator may sell a business as a going concern. A board may elect to leave the public arena (P2P). Changes in a management team, or a venture capitalist’s desire to exit, may generate a secondary MBO/MBI. As explained earlier, the main source of MBOs/MBIs is private Read more