Physical Loading

                          Based on the knowledge you have acquired in (Basic Anatomy and Physiology), you now have an understanding of how the body’s locomotive. Structures allow movement and the handling of loads. In this chapter, we turn that anatomical and physiological knowledge into mechanical principles of loading, allowing you to identify, analyse and evaluate the greatest risks for physical injury in the workplace.                          One of the great strengths of engineering is the ability to make simplifications in Read more

What is ergonomics/human factors?

                  For many people, the word ergonomic is associated primarily with comfy office chairs, the correct labeled “ergonomic”, like kitchenware, backpacks or gardening tools. The word itself comes from the Greek roots ergon (work)and nomos (laws)androughlytranslatesto“th scienceofwork”,focusingonhumanactivity. The purpose of production ergonomics               It can be assumed that anyone in charge of a production system would want all of its sub-components to function together with as much ease and efficiency as possible. When part of that production system is human, the performance of the system as Read more

Measuring posture

                         How, then, can we determine if a posture in itself is harmful? A good rule of thumb is that if a posture is held near the outer range of motion, it is probably not a good position for taking on external forces. For many ergonomics evaluation methods, posture is defined in terms of joint angles between body segments. A “neutral” posture is considered the least amount of loading, and resembles a relaxed, standing, symmetrical body position with the arms hanging along the sides of the body .   Read more

Basic Anatomy and Physiology

             Our ability to work – in any way – is completely dependent on our physical health. When we feel unease, discomfort, pain or numbness, we may be able to ignore the body’s warning signals and still perform work, but the body will perform slower; with less power, quality and precision; with more errors; and at worst, resulting in serious accidents. A very real problem that is faced by all productio industry is when the limit has been passed for what a human body can tolerate, resulting in a worke needing to go on sick Read more


                Why do i need to know this as an engineer sometimes a bit of history goes a long way to explain why certain things in a discipline are considered important. For an engineer it may be good to know what the starting point was before any real thought was put into methodically improving the human aspects of production work. It will also help you understand why ergonomics covers so many areas and is such a diverse and complex discipline. The discipline of ergonomics is not nearly as old as medicine or even Read more

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

                This condition is caused by highly repetitive work in extreme positions, in combination with high force development. The median nerve, which runs through the space in the wrist called the carpal tunnel, gets pinched due to increased pressure. This leads to numbness, tingling, decreased function and weakness in the area around the nerve, and the fingers that are affected by the median nerve (the thumb and three middle fingers). Similar symptoms can be had for radial and ulnar nerves. Treatment of CTS depends on the severity, but non- surgical treatment usually includes Read more


                 What is music its ? what comes out of the speakers when we play a cd on our stereo. Its what we hear on the radio. Music is singers singing and musicians playing. music is a sound that we enjoy hearing. iIs this a proper answer to the question what is music if i asked what is a car you could answer by pointing at a large object moving up the street and saying its one of those. But this may not be a satisfactory answer. A full explanation of what a car is would mention petrol internal combustion engines Read more


          What do we see when we see dance what do we feel when we dance who are we when we are part of an enactment of dance the phenomenon of dance brings to the fore key ideas about the nature of human meaning-making the role of our fundamentally corporeal actions in the world and the foundational aspects of our experiences. Dance i contend holds immense promise as an object for study as well as a subject of study that is a source of insight in itself shedding light on life movement and meaning. In investigating Read more


What entertains a given individual is inescapably subjective, a matter of. One might paraphrase Berelson: some kinds of communication, under some kinds of conditions, will entertain some kinds of people .  Some scholars contend that empathy can signal the presence of entertainment. Bosshart and Macconi suggest that entertainment requires one “to identify himself or herself with fictional persons and actions”. Similarly, Oliver explores tragedy and other somber forms of entertainment, and concludes that enjoyment of them correlates with what she terms “tender affective states,” which are “associated with feelings of sympathy, warmth, kindness, and understanding” . Zillmann proposes an Affective Read more

Factors that may influence body posture

 SPACE                        Humans are good at adapting body posture to existing preconditions in order to fulfil a task. This may often involve twisting or turning the body in order to reach, fit into an inconvenient space or avoid touching the surface of materials (example: so as not to scratch the paint job of a car). Therefore, it is necessary to determine how much working space around the task will be enough to avoid unnecessary loading, and whether to design for a minimum amount of space or with safety margins. A Read more